23 Şubat 2012 Perşembe

Ego-control and ego-resiliency

My quotations from:

Ego-control and ego-resiliency: Generalization
of self-report scales based on personality
descriptions from acquaintances,
clinicians, and the self

Tera D. Letzringa,*, Jack Blockb, David C. Fundera
a Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
b University of California, Berkeley, USA

Ego-control refers to the inhibition/expression of impulse and ego-resiliency (ER) to the dynamic capacity to contextually modify one_s level of ego-control in response to situational affordances (Block, J., 1950, 2002; Block, J.H., 1951; Block & Block, 1980).

1. Introduction
Ego-control (EC) and ego-resiliency (ER) are conceptualized as central personality constructs for understanding motivation, emotion, and behavior (Block, J., 1950, 2002; Block, J.H., 1951; Block & Block, 1980). Broadly conceived and summarily characterized, EC refers to a meta-dimension of impulse inhibition/expression and ER refers to a meta-dimension of the dynamic capacity to contextually modify one’s level of control in response to situational demands and affordances.

Overcontrolled individuals characteristically contain impulse and affect across situations, even when
doing so may not be necessary. On the other hand, undercontrolled individuals characteristically express impulse and affect across situations, even when doing so may be inappropriate. Highly ego-resilient individuals are characteristically able to modify their level of control, either up or down, as may be appropriate or necessary according to the situational context. Individuals with a low level of ego-resiliency are more restricted to the same level of impulse containment or expression regardless of situational demands.

1.1. Ego-control
According to theory developed by Jack and Jeanne Block over several decades, the individual difference dimension of ego-control varies from overcontrol to undercontrol (Block, 2002; Block & Block, 1980). Overcontrolled individuals are conceptualized as relatively inhibited in action and affect-expressiveness to the point of at times being excessively constrained. They have difficulty making decisions, may unnecessarily delay gratification or deny themselves pleasure, are tightly organized,
are insulated from environmental distractions, and are able to continue even repetitive tasks for long periods of time.

At the other extreme, undercontrolled individuals characteristically express affect and impulses relatively immediately and directly even when doing so may be socially or personally inappropriate. They are relatively unable to delay gratification, have fluctuating emotions, and are spontaneous, easily distracted, and relatively unbound by social customs (Block, 2002; Funder & Block, 1989).

The consequences of characteristic overcontrol or undercontrol may be adaptive or maladaptive depending on circumstances. Overcontrol may facilitate disciplined and directed behavior, which can be advantageous in some situations. In other contexts, where delaying gratification and pleasure is unwarranted or psychologically undesirable, overcontrol is likely to be detrimental to personal and often societal fruition.

In parallel, undercontrol can facilitate the expression of warmth, friendliness, and spontaneity, which are likely to be advantageous in promoting intimacy and the enjoyment of life. However, undercontrol can be maladaptive when it leads to erratic, unorganized, or dangerous behavior.

1.2. Ego-resiliency
According to the Blocks_ theorizing, ego-resiliency is the ability to adapt one_s level of control temporarily up or down as circumstances dictate (Block, 2002; Block & Block, 1980). As a result of this adaptive flexibility, individuals with a high level of resiliency are more likely to experience positive affect, and have higher levels of selfconfidence and better psychological adjustment than individuals with a low level of resiliency (Block & Kremen, 1996; Klohnen, 1996). When confronted by stressful circumstances, individuals with a low level of resiliency may act in a stiff and perseverative manner or chaotically and diffusely, and in either case, the resulting behavior is likely to be maladaptive (Block & Kremen, 1996).